Responsible Purchasing Network

Lighting: Credits & Endnotes


Editors: Chris O’Brien and Matt Kittell
Authors: Alicia Culver and Mary Jo Snavely
Responsible Purchasing Network © 2007

The following people provided input to this Guide and helped ensure quality and accuracy. RPN accepts sole responsibility for any errors or omissions. Affiliations listed below were current as of publication and do not imply organizational endorsement of this Guide.

Angela Bourdaghs (Minnesota Pollution Control Agency), Karl Bruskotter (City of Santa Monica), Dan Burgoyne (California Department of General Services), Scot Case (Terrachoice), Sandra Cannon (EcoPurchasing Consultants), Tom Clark (Minnesota Pollution Control Agency), Allen Dotson (Minnesota Pollution Control Agency), Gary Flamm (California Energy Commission), Ray Graczyk (Northeast Lamp Recycling), Erica Rowell (Natural Resources Defense Council), and Paul Walitsky (Industrial Ecology, LLC).


ACEEE – American Council for An Energy Efficient Economy. “High Efficiency Premium T8 Lighting (100 Lumens/Watt),” 2004. Available at

ALMR – Association of Lamp and Mercury Recyclers. “National Mercury-Lamp Recycling: Rate and Availability of Lamp Recycling Services in the U.S.,” November 2004. Accessed February 8, 2007. Available at

ASE – Alliance to Save Energy and The Power Is In Your Hands. “Commercial/Small Business Tips: save money by reducing your energy bills,” December 2005. Available at

Banwell, Peter and Tianan Li. “Opportunities and Issues Surrounding International Harmonization of Voluntary Lighting Specifications, USA and China,” May 2005.

Case, Scot. GovPro Magazine. “Here’s a Bright Idea – Energy Efficient Lighting for Home and Office,” October 2006. Available at

DHH – U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. EPA. “What You Need to Know About Mercury in Fish and Shellfish,” March 2004. Available at

DOE – U.S Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration. “Existing Capacity by Energy Source,” 2005. Available at  
_____a. “Electricity and Renewable Fuel Tables, Electric Power Projections for Electricity Market Module Region, Table 75.” Accessed August 20, 2007. Available at
_____b. “Annual Energy Outlook 2007,” Accessed August 20, 2007. Available at
_____c. "Electric Power Projections for Electricity Market Module Region", Table 91: "United States", Accessed August 22, 2007. Available at

FEMP – U.S. Department of Energy, Federal Energy Management Program. Energy-Efficient Products: “Tips for Using Compact Fluorescent Lamps,” January 18, 2007. Available at

ELC – European Lamp Companies Federation. “The Lamp Industries Commitment to Support a Government Shift to Energy Efficient Lighting Products in the Home: Questions and Answers,” April 20, 2007; Available at

EERE – U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, State Energy Program. “Laying the Foundation for Market Transformation,” 2003. Available at
_____2004. Afterimage and Space, Energy Conservation Using Scotopically Enhanced Fluorescent Lighting in an Office Environment, Prepared for Building Technologies Program, March 2004,

_____2006. Building Technologies Program. “Lighting Research and Development,” 2006.

EIA – “Emissions from Energy Consumption for Electricity Production and Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants,” 2006.  Available at

ENERGY STAR. “Light Commercial Heating and Cooling,” n.d. Accessed February 8, 2007. Available at  
_____a. “Congregations: Selected Success Stories,” n.d. Accessed February 8, 2007. Available at  
_____b. “Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs,” n.d. Accessed February 8, 2007. Available at
_____c. "Frequently Asked Questions: Information on Proper Disposal of Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs (CFLs),” n.d. Accessed February 8, 2007.
_____d. “Exit Signs,” n.d. Accessed September 25, 2007. Available at

EPA – Environmental Protection Agency. 2006. “Storage and Disposal: Ballasts.” Available at

____2007. EPA Fact Sheet: 2005/2006 National Listing of Fish Advisories, July 2007. Available at  
_____2000. “Lead Compounds: Hazard Summary, Revised 2000; Available at

GE – GE Lighting. “Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL) FAQs.” n.d. Accessed August 26, 2007. Available at

GPI – Green Purchasing Institute. Review of mercury content data submitted by various U.S. lighting manufacturers, 2007.
_____2007b. Review of various exit signs, replacement lamps and retrofit kits listed for sale on Internet, September 25, 2007.
_____2007c. Review of Grainger online catalog:, September 25, 2007.

ILI – inter.Light, Inc. “Light Guide: Fluorescent Ballasts,” 2000. Available at (Adapted from Advanced Lighting Guidelines: 1993 2nd edition, originally published by the California Energy Commission).

LRC – Light Right Consortium (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and U.S. Department of Energy). “Lighting Values,” 2002. Available at

Mahaffey, Kathryn. “Methylmercury: Epidemiology Update,” page 5. Fish Forum. San Diego, California. 2004. Slides available online at

NEMA – National Electrical Manufacturers Association. “NGLIA Handout: The Lighting Industry and its Potential for Change” and “NGLIA Supporting Fact Sheet”, September 2003. Available at

______2005. National Electrical Manufacturers Association, “Fluorescent and Other Mercury-Containing Lamps and the Environment: Mercury Use, Environmental Benefits, and Disposal Requirements, March 2005. Available at

PP – Pollution Probe, “Background Study on Increasing Recycling of End-of-Life Mercury-Containing Lamps from Residential and Commercial Sources in Canada, October 31, 2005; Available at

Rosoff, Robert J. “Addressing Labor Rights Problems in China.” Chinese Business Review. Available at

TetraTech. Factsheet: WEE and RoHS Directives, 2007. Available at

TT – Taipei Times. “Tube Recycling System Launched,” October 30, 2004, page 2. Available at

WSU – Washington State University Energy Program. “Fact Sheet: Dimmable Compact Fluorescent Lamps”, 2003,  Available at .

Creative Commons License This work by the Responsible Purchasing Network is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 United States License.

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